Modern legal positivists view international law as a unified system of rules based on the will of states. International law, as it stands, is an “objective” reality that must be distinguished from the law “as it should be”. Classical positivism requires strict tests of legal validity and considers that all extra-legal arguments are irrelevant. [56] Since its inception in 1989, TransLegal has produced the highest quality English-language legal training materials for the international legal community. These materials include, but are not limited to, two leading course books published by Cambridge University Press; the International Legal English Certificate (ILEC) exam produced by TransLegal in partnership with Cambridge University, Cambridge Assessments; a blended learning legal English course in association with Boston University School of Law and Cambridge University Press (PLEAD);online legal English training;an English legal dictionary; and Online Legal English Tests. Upon receipt of the list of key local legal terms identified by the partner university, TransLegal will compare the key local legal terms with the translated terms created by the partner university at Level 2 and determine which terms are not covered. Students who participate in this project at each partner university receive valuable training in comparative legal terminology – essential skills for their future career in law. Equally important, these students are forever recognized as the authors of the world`s largest multilingual dictionary of law, an invaluable achievement in the search for future employment. Finally, as part of their work on the project, they will have the opportunity to interact professionally with other law students, lawyers and lecturers from around the world and to make professional contacts in their legal careers. To this end, TransLegal is setting up a network of World Law Dictionary authors with pages on LinkedIn and the TransLegal website where students can ask and answer questions about comparative legal terminology and make lasting contacts in the international legal community.

This is a unique opportunity for students considering a legal career with international aspects. At its inception, the United Nations had 51 member states. Its membership had grown to 180 states by 1996, including almost all the world`s independent nations. The United Nations serves a variety of purposes and responsibilities. That includes peacekeeping; to develop friendly relations among nations; international cooperation in solving international problems of an economic, social, cultural and humanitarian character; and the promotion of human rights and fundamental freedoms for all without discrimination (Article 1 of the Charter of the United Nations). The Common European Framework of Reference for Languages (CEFR) is a guideline describing the achievements of language learners across Europe and increasingly in other countries (e.g. Colombia and the Philippines). It was prepared by the Council of Europe. Its main objective is to provide a method of learning, teaching and assessment that applies to all languages in Europe.

Our corpus-based dictionary contains definitions that are classified at the CEFR level at level B2. By using plain language to clarify terms, rather than simplifying them, complex legal concepts are made more accessible to English learners. The CEFR provides a common basis for language teaching in the key areas of curriculum development, the design of teaching and learning materials and the assessment of foreign language competences. One of the main achievements was the development of a comprehensive set of descriptions at the level of language proficiency components at all levels across a range of jurisdictions. For example, a B2 level English learner may perform a number of relatively complex tasks, including questions to be clarified after a presentation, understanding the general meaning of fluent and non-routine correspondence, and writing reports and correspondence. States may also submit their disputes by mutual agreement to the International Court of Justice, based in The Hague, Netherlands. The judgments of the Court of Justice in these cases are binding, although it has no means of enforcing its decisions. The Court may, at the request of an organ authorized for that purpose by the Charter of the United Nations or in accordance with the Charter of the United Nations, give an advisory opinion on any question of law. Some of the advisory cases referred to the Court have been challenged as to the jurisdiction and competence of the Court. At the same time, in the Islamic world, foreign relations were divided into three categories on the basis of the division of the world: dar al-Islam (territory of Islam), where Islamic law prevailed; Dar al-Sulh (treaty territory), non-Islamic empires that have signed a truce with a Muslim government; and Dar al-Harb (war zone), non-Islamic countries whose leaders are called upon to embrace Islam. [16] [17] Under the beginning of the seventh-century caliphate, Islamic legal principles on military conduct and the treatment of prisoners of war served as a precursor to modern international humanitarian law.

Islamic law at the time institutionalized humanitarian restrictions on military behavior, including attempts to limit the severity of war, guidelines for cessation of hostilities, distinction between civilians and combatants, prevention of unnecessary destruction, and care for the sick and wounded. [18] Among the many requirements for how POWs were to be treated were the provision of shelter, food, and clothing, respect for their cultures, and the prevention of execution, rape, or acts of revenge. Some of these principles have only been codified in modern times in Western international law. [19] Theoretically, all states are sovereign and equal. Because of the concept of sovereignty, the value and authority of international law depend on the voluntary participation of States in its formulation, respect and implementation. While there may be exceptions, many international academics assume that most states enter into legal obligations with other states out of enlightened self-interest, rather than abiding by a law superior to their own. As D. W. Greig observes, “international law cannot exist independently of the political factors at work in the field of international relations”. [31] A more contemporary definition extends traditional notions of international law to confer rights and obligations on international intergovernmental organizations and even individuals. The United Nations, for example, is an international organization capable of maintaining contractual relations governed and binding by international law.

Individual responsibility under international law is of particular importance in the prosecution of war criminals and the development of international human rights. As English legal terminology becomes more widely used internationally, the meanings of English legal terms become established both in international commercial practice and in court decisions.